Lupinus termis contained a higher percentage of protein (), mg calcium and mg iron. 2. All the essential amino acids are present in fair amounts. A new lupin alkaloid, (−)-Δ5-dehydroalbine, was isolated from the ethanol extract of the seeds of Lupinus termis together with some unusual lupin alkaloids. Common name, White lupine. Synonym, Lupinus termis. Other names, ›Lupinus albus L. ›Lupinus termis Forssk. Rank, SPECIES. Lineage, › cellular organisms.
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Lupinus albuscommonly known as the white lupin or field lupineis a member of the genus Lupinus in the family Fabaceae.
It is a traditional pulse cultivated in the Mediterranean region. White lupine is widely spread as wild plants throughout the southern Balkansthe Italian mainland region of Apuliathe islands of SicilyCorsicaand Sardiniaand the Termie Seaas well as in LebanonIsraelPalestineand western Anatolia.
It occurs in meadows, pastures, and grassy slopes, predominantly on sandy and acid soils. The llupinus culture of white lupin under the local name “hanchcoly” was practiced until recently in Western Georgia. White lupin is distinct within the vast and polymorphous genus Lupinus L. However, it has wide intraspecific variability in physiological plant properties: There are tdrmis and spring forms of white lupin. Duration of growing period under spring sowing varies from to tetmis, seed mass per plant changes from 2.
In Greeceand especially on the island of Crete and in the Peloponnese area, they are a very common snack during the period of lent before Easter. They are normally soaked in sea water for 2—3 hours to mellow the flavour and consumed raw. The beginning of the history of lupin cultivation in the Old World is often associated with the times of the ancient Egyptian civilization Zhukovsky, It is, lupinks, more likely Kurlovich, that originally white lupin was introduced into cultivation in ancient Greece where its greatest biodiversity was concentrated and wild-growing forms have been preserved until nowadays ssp.
Lupinus albus – Wikipedia
On the Balkan Peninsula representatives of another subspecies of white lupin ssp. Until termia, in many countries of the luupinus water-soaked and boiled lupin seeds are sold on markets and in bars as snacks much like sunflower seeds. White lupin dispersed step-by-step from Greece to adjacent countries, in particular, to Egypt and Ancient Rome. The forms with white seeds and pink-and-blue or light-pink flowers L.
Since ancient times white lupin was largely widespread in the Mediterranean region and termls the Middle East, due to its soil amelioration properties and because it develops well on acidic soils. In quite hot climatic zones, as in Italy, the sowing happens in October—November, after having ploughed temis soil to bury the stubble of the previous crop, often a cereal.
Thanks to its branched structure, the lupin can adapt to different sowing densities, compensating for a lower density with a higher branch growth. The soil must be prepared as soon as possible after the winter break.
The seedbed must be enough fine, particularly in organic farming lupinua mechanical weeding is done so that by harrowing the displacement of clods doesn’t cause harm. Soil acidity is an important factor for nitrogen fixation. Fertilisations based on compost or composted manure are better than fresh manure. Thanks to its long tap root, white lupin can exploit well phosphorus reserves in the soil.
The crop rotation for white lupin ideally lasts at least four, ideally five years and often lupin is grown after a cereal crop. The lupin doesn’t compete well with weeds, particularly in the colder zones, because it closes the stand only in late summer.
The use of Lupinus termis L. cultivated in Egypt, as a food protein supplement.
Mechanical weeding is feasible, also hoeing if the rows are wide enough. Depending on the climatic zone of cultivation, pods ripening happens from June—July to late August.
Based on the numerous diseases for lupinus albus, the management is complex and very important. Higher yields can reach by early sowing dates, but this strategy can increase the affecting by pests and diseases. Fungal diseases are often controlled with fungicides. The following three fungi are lupin-specific and fully adapted to the presence of alkaloids: Pleichaeta setosa causes brown-leaf spot.
It is a problem of autumn-sown crops. Therefore, with the use of winter-hardy plant and the selection of frost tolerant plants, the tolerance of the genetic material has increased. Uromyces lupinicolus is rust, which causes defoliation and reduces the biomass production. It is mainly developed during warm and dry summer periods.
The chemical treatment with triazole fungicides is effective.
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There is no breeding program about rust tolerant plants designed. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a seed-borne fungus disease.
Bean mosaic virus is transmitted by aphids and with infected seed. It is the major viral disease for lupinus albus. A major disease for the other lupines is cucumber mosaic virus. To this virus lupinus albus is immune.
Phorbia platura is the only insect with significant impact on lupinus albus. Aphids are also a problem. Mostly they are found during budding and early pod stages. The chemical composition of lupin seeds depends on the cultivation region except from the protein content which is independent from environmental conditions.
The white lupin seeds contain a high amount of proteins. The net protein utilization is slightly lower than that of animal protein.
The fats have a ratio of omega-6 w-6 to omega-3 w-3 from 2: The carbohydrates found in the seeds are mainly soluble and insoluble fibre and the starch content is very low.
Therefore, lupin seeds have a low glycaemic index. The main macroelements found in white lupin seeds are K, Mn, and Mg, and the prevalling microelements are Ca, Fe, and Na. The white lupin seeds have a low or very low content of antinutrients.
Their removal is possible through food processing treatments e. Total alkaloid content in sweet white lupin cultivars does not currently exceed 0. The main allergens are Lup-1 a conglutin b, vicilin-like proteinLup-2 conglutin a, legumin-like protein. Although an excessive use of L. This is due to the susceptibility of some lupine cultivars towards Diaporthe toxica.
While there were no major negative health effects found in cattle, it is proposed that supplementation with L. Nonetheless, roasted seeds of L. As opposed to the advantages in ruminant diets, L.
Research indicated, that a diet based on white lupine results in poorer growth rates due to reduced feed intake, compared with other lupine species, such as L. Although broilers can tolerate a high share of lupine seeds in their diet, an excess use should be avoided, as it causes moist faeces, which negatively affects hygiene and therefore promotes health risks. White lupin seeds have also been recommended for a long time to feed rabbits, being a good source of protein and energy.
The seeds are also a potential useful feed for aquaculture, to replace partially fish meal or soybean meal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lupinus albus Scientific classification Kingdom: Proceeding 9th International Lupin Conference: White Lupin Lupinus albus L. Food Sci35 2pp. Retrieved November 19, Italian Journal of Animal Science.
White lupin Lupinus albus seeds. Retrieved from ” https: Articles with ‘species’ microformats Commons category link from Wikidata Taxonbars with 20—24 taxon IDs. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.