Linguatula serrata can be found in several countries in Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the Americas. Although the distribution of . Linguatula serrata is a food-borne zoonotic pentastomid that affects a wide range of animals including humans. Dogs and other carnivores are the final hosts. Twenty-four to 48 hours after imidacloprid/moxidectin was administered, the dog coughed up a dead worm, later confirmed as Linguatula serrata (Fig 1).

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Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary limguatula in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented.

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The patient linguuatula raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L.

Linguatula serrataentitled tongue worm, and a worm-like blood sucking parasite; belongs to the phylum Pentastomida.

This zoonotic pentastomid parasite live mainly in the nasal passages and frontal sinuses of carnivorous, principally of dog and occasionally other animals including reptiles, birds and mammals 1.

The eggs, containing embryos are expelled either with nasal secretions or in the feces. When ingested by an intermediate host such as rodents rabbits and ratsruminants sheep, goats, cattle and camels and accidentally by humans 1the embryos migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes and various other organs, where they feed on blood and linguatlua and molt to become mature nymphal stage.

The nymph may retain alive in the intermediate host for at least two to three years, where they become encapsulated 2. Humans are accidentally infected by ingesting water and vegetables or frequently by eating raw liver containing nymphs 2. To cause infection the nymphs must cling to the mucus membrane of the mouth before being swallowed or when vomited. In human beings they may produce no symptoms, but sometimes cause severe catarrh, bleeding and suppuration and may cause much sneezing, difficulty in breathing, irritations and discomfort of upper respiratory tract, when they obstruct the nasal passages 12.

In Iran, high prevalence of L. Sporadic infestation of human linguatulosis have been documented from different provinces of Iran including Tehran 1415Mashhad 16 and Shiraz This study was aimed to report an interesting case of human linguatulosis in sdrrata city of Kerman in This study has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L.


A year-old woman sergata admitted to the respiratory tract clinic at the Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the city of Kerman, the center of Kerman province, south- eastern Iran in She used to consume raw liver of sheep for many years, a traditional belief for its nutritional values. The last time she ate pieces of raw liver, she felt burning sensation and itching irritation of the upper respiratory mucus membranes in particularly nasopharyngeal region and throat.

The condition became worst, gradually within a week, where other symptoms including sneezing, coughing and respiratory discharges appeared, progressively. Upon examination by nasopharyngoscopy and bronchoscopy, no foreign bodies were observed.

Following further coughing, accompanied by blowing of the nasal areas, three worm-like pentastomid were expelled. The pentostomids were fixed in ethanol and stained by acetic carmine and mounted. They were examined under a conventional light microscope and identified as the nymphal instars of Linguatula serrata. In close microscopic examination, the head actually consists of the mouth, two pairs of hooks, and surface membrane with spines and llinguatula segmentation Fig.

Liguatula serrata demonstrating A a nymphal instar B gut in mid-posterior and C two pairs of hooks around the mouthparts. The parasite was 4. Cetirizine medicine and Flixonase aqueous nasal spray were used for treatment of allergic reaction induced by L. The patient was also administered physiological saline solution for washing the nasal areas.

Follow- up examination of linguayula patient showed no symptoms or complaints, with a thankful appreciation and comfortable feeling.

Linguatulosis due to L. Most of the infestation is acquired by ingesting vegetables or water contaminated with pentostome eggs or by consuming under-cooked and raw liver of livestock 1.

The symptomatic condition of the patient in this report is much like that of marrara or halzoun syndrome caused by L. Similar sporadic linguatulosis of human has previously been reported from different provinces of Iran 14 – 17 and kinguatula countries 18 Interestingly, high prevalence of infestations in dogs and ruminants sheep, goats, cattle and camelsas definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, play an important role in epidemiology of human linguatulosis, in this county.

These animals as potential source of infection and as a threat, pose an important public serrtaa and veterinary concern worldwide, mainly in endemic counties such as Iran. Physicians should be aware and consider L. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Iran J Parasitol v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.


Received Sep 11; Accepted Jan 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Linguatulosis, Linguatula serrataHalzoun syndrome, Iran. Introduction Linguatula serrataentitled tongue worm, and a worm-like blood sucking parasite; belongs to the phylum Pentastomida. Case presentation A year-old woman was admitted to the respiratory tract clinic at the Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the city of Kerman, the center of Kerman province, south- eastern Iran in Open in a separate window.

Discussion Linguatulosis due to L. Acknowledgments The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests. Mc Graw-Hill; New York: The status of Linguatula serrata infection of stray dogs in Shiraz, Iran. Meshgi B, Asgarian O. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata infection in stray dogs of Shahrekord, Iran. J Vet Med Ser Serrataa. Shekarforoush SS, Arzani P.

The study of prevalence rate of L. Iranian J Vet Res. Mesenteric and mediastinal lymph node infection with Linguatula serrata nymphs in sheep slaughtered in Kerman slaughterhouse, southeast Iran.

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Trop Anim Health Prod. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in goats slaughtered in Kerman slaughterhouse, Kerman, Iran. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes in cattle. Amer J Animal Veterin Sci. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in one-humped camel Camelus dromedarius in Southeast of Iran.

One-humped camel Camelus dromedaries infestation with Linguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Born Dis. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in linguatuula and mediastinal lymph nodes in one-humped lingguatula Camelus dromedarius slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaughterhouse, Iran. Prevalence and morphological characterizations of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels in Isfahan province, Iran. A case report of Nasopharyngeal Linguatuliasis in Tehran, Setrata and characterization of the isolated Linguatula serrate.

A case report of Linguatula serrata in human throat from Tehran, central Iran. Ind J Med Sci. Pentastomiasis and report of the first case of halzoun syndrome in Khorasan province.

A case report of Linguatula serrata in human pharynx from Shiraz, Southern Iran. Med J Islamic Rep Iran. Ocular Linguatuliasis in Ecuador: Am J Trop Med Hyg.

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