LEI 12694 DE 2012 PDF

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Genetic sequence data have been submitted to a publicly available repository Genbank with the accessible sequence accession numbers MFMF More than a decade after the outbreak of human coronaviruses HCoVs SARS in Guangdong province and Hong Kong SAR of China inthere is still no reoccurrence, but the evolution and recombination of the coronaviruses in this region are still unknown.

Therefore, surveillance on the prevalence and the virus variation of HCoVs circulation in this region is conducted. Viral nucleic acids were analyzed and sequenced to study the prevalence and genetic diversity of the four human coronaviruses. The statistical significance of the data was evaluated with Fisher chi-square test.

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The HCoVs predominant circulating season was in transition of winter to spring, especially January and February and NL63 detected only in summer and fall. Moreover, several novel mutations including nucleotides substitution and the insertion of spike of the glycoprotein on the viral surface were discovered.

The detection rate and epidemic trend of coronaviruses were stable and no obvious fluctuations were found. The detected coronaviruses shared a conserved gene sequences in S and RdRp. However, mutants of the epidemic strains were detected, suggesting continuous monitoring of the human coronaviruses is in need among cross-border children, who are more likely to get infected and transmit the viruses across the border easily, in addition to the general public.

Human coronaviruses HCoVs have been causing worldwide outbreak with cases of hospitalization [ 1 ]. Six types of coronaviruses CoVs are known to infect human: HCoVs ranks the third in the detection rate of all 17 respiratory viruses in south of China Guangzhou and poses a heavy burden to the health care of children as it is associated with acute upper or lower respiratory tract infections, and cases of death have been reported [ 6 ].

Several studies about the genetic diversity of human coronaviruses on hospitalized patients had been carried out previously. The genetic features of NL63 were reported at least three distinct circulating genotypes A, B and C and one recombinant cluster R in the United States in [ 11 ]. A border still exists between Shenzhen in Mainland China and Hong Kong SZ-HK port due to the colonial history, resulting in different health care and education systems [ 13 ].

New occurrence of infectious coronaviruses and the known pan-coronavirus variation among this region are of our study interest because the coronaviruses have the potential to threaten global health system and no vaccine is currently available [ 15 li, 16 ].

Therefore, dd upon human coronaviruses among this region was carried in this study. This was a cross-sectional study in molecular epidemiology for coronaviruses infection, and the minimum sample size of this study was as determined by Z distribution.

Written informed consent was obtained from the guardians of all participants before the sample and data collection. The specimens were firstly lfi for influenza viruses according to the procedure previously published [ 17 ]. Samples of negative results on influenza 202 then tested for pan-coronavirus as well as 13 other common respiratory viruses.

The thermal cycling conditions were set as follows: The statistical significance of the data was evaluated with SPSS The phylogenetic trees were constructed by MEGA 7.

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Three thousand, two hundred and ninety-eight nasopharyngeal swabs samples were screened to study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of HCoVs infection. All the coronaviruses detected in this study could be typed. The HCoVs predominant circulating season was in transition of winter to spring, especially January and February and NL63 detected only in summer and fall Fig.

Males and females shared a common detection rate of all the HCoVs studied and no significant difference was found among the detection rate of the four strains. Yet, there was no significant difference between HCoVs infected and non-infected patients.

There was virus co-infection between human coronaviruses with other common respiratory diseases. Epidemiological characteristics of human coronaviruses infection among Cross-border children. Positive and co-infected cases were plotted on the left Y-axis and others were plotted on the right Y-axis. Different strains or total HCoVs were indicated according to the key. Since there is a high conservative in RdRp gene, phylogenetic tree was not shown here.

The OC43 coronaviruses were clustered into clade B 5, Similarly, HKU1 strains in this study were clustered into clade A 7, NL63 strains in this study were clustered into clade A 1, I Phylogenetic tree of OC43 S genes 2.

Our samples were indicated with a red spot and others were used as referenced strains from complete genomes in GenBank. Moreover, we found nucleotide mutations in some of the samples Fig. Three out of 8 OC43 coronaviruses of genotype D had a total of 11 bases substitution in nucleotide position 25,—25, of S genes Genbank accession number of referenced strain: The detection rate of total HCoVs was 2.

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All the coronaviruses detected have been typed. OC43 was the most lfi coronaviruses in our study consistent with reports in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, USA and England [ 418 — 20 ], but some studies demonstrated that the prevalence of NL63 was similar to or even higher than that of OC43 in Brazil, Kenya and Japan [ 321 — 23 ].

The HCoVs predominant circulating season was in transition of winter to spring, especially January and February. NL63 predominant circulating seasons 2021 summer and fall, which were different from those reports of winter and spring in temperate countries, such as the USA and Netherlands [ 2425 ]. Compared with previous reports, the detection rate and epidemic trend of coronaviruses were stable, and no obvious fluctuations were found.

The coronaviruses detected from SZ-HK ports had a high homology with the published strains indicated a stable gene sequences in S and RdRp. However, there were great genetic diversity among these circulating strains.

OC43 detected in this report cluster with genotype B, D and E strains, while none of genotypes A and C were detected, probably because genotype A strains had disappeared and genotype C strains were not included in this study [ 9 ].

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We observed six OC43 coronaviruses were closely related to the genotype B detected from Beijing based on S genes. New Recombination genotypes led by high intra-specific diversity have been reported in studying OC43 coronaviruses circulating in France, where eight different recombinants were discovered and confirmed with in silico analysis of complete genomes available using partial genome sequencing [ 10 ].

More importantly, these amino acid sites are located in one of the putative regions of HKU1 receptor binding domain [ 26 ]. The protein structure and its related function, especially on the efficiency on human infection, need to be investigated in the future.

The detection rate of coronaviruses were in line with previous reports, no novel infectious coronaviruses was detected, the epidemic trend of coronaviruses were stable and all the infectors showed normal respiratory infection symptoms.

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Besides there were great genetic diversity of coronaviruses detected from SZ-HK ports and all the strains had a high homology compared with the published strains. However, mutant of the epidemic strains detected during our surveillance are increasing, therefore continuous monitoring of the human coronaviruses is in need among cross-border children, who are more likely to get infected and transmit the viruses across the border easily, in addition to the general public.

PL drafted the manuscript. WZ involved amplifying the genes. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Prevalence and genetic diversity analysis of human coronaviruses among cross-border children

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Peilin Liu and Lei Shi contributed to the work equally. Peilin Liu and Lei Shi are co-first authors. Jacky Fong Chuen Loo, Email: National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Virol J v. Published online Nov Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received May 14; Accepted Nov Associated Data Data Availability Statement Genetic sequence data have been submitted to a publicly available repository Genbank with the accessible sequence accession numbers MFMF Conclusions The detection rate and epidemic trend of coronaviruses were stable and no obvious fluctuations were found. Human coronaviruses, Cross-border children, Molecular epidemiology, Phylogenetic analysis, Genetic diversity. Background Human coronaviruses HCoVs have been causing worldwide outbreak with cases of hospitalization [ 1 ].

Methods Clinical specimens collection This was a cross-sectional study in molecular epidemiology for coronaviruses infection, and the minimum sample size of this study was as determined by Z distribution. Open in a separate window. Statistical and sequence analysis The statistical significance of the data was evaluated with SPSS Results Three thousand, two hundred and ninety-eight nasopharyngeal swabs samples were screened to study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of HCoVs infection.

Discussion The detection rate of total HCoVs was 2. Conclusions The detection rate of coronaviruses were in line with previous reports, no novel infectious coronaviruses was detected, the epidemic trend of coronaviruses were stable and all the infectors showed normal respiratory infection symptoms. Availability of data and materials Genetic sequence data have been submitted to a publicly available repository Genbank with the accessible sequence accession numbers MFMF Consent for publication Not applicable.

Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Footnotes Peilin Liu and Lei Shi contributed to the work equally.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Accessed 16 Apr Epidemiological and clinical features of human coronavirus infections among different subsets of patients. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.

The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants. Detection of human coronavirus strain HKU1 in a 2 years old girl with asthma exacerbation caused by acute pharyngitis.

Epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Guangzhou: Coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and interspecies jumping. Exp Biol Med Maywood ; Circulation of genetically distinct contemporary human coronavirus OC43 strains.

Genotype shift in human coronavirus OC43 and emergence of a novel genotype by natural recombination. Genomic analysis of 16 Colorado human NL63 coronaviruses identifies a new genotype, high sequence diversity in the N-terminal domain of the spike gene and evidence of recombination.

Comparative analysis of 22 coronavirus HKU1 genomes reveals ds novel genotype and evidence of natural recombination in coronavirus HKU1.

Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses. Epidemiology of coronavirus-associated respiratory tract infections and the role of rapid diagnostic tests: