GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM PDF

Gongronema latifolium is widely used in West Africa for medicinal and nutritional purposes. An infusion of the aerial parts is taken to treat cough, intestinal. Gongronema latifolium Benth. [family ]. Herbarium. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew ( K). Collection. Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Resource Type. Reference. This study was carried out to investigate and understand the biology, utilization and phytochemical composition of Gongronema latifolium which is a spice plant.

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Visit for more related articles at Agrotechnology. Basic information on plant species is important for the improvement of the species.

This study was carried out to investigate and understand the biology, utilization and phytochemical composition of Gongronema latifolium which is a spice plant growing in the humid forest vegetation of South- Eastern Nigeria.

Results showed that the species had culinary and medicinal properties.

The seeds are flat with white hairy pappus, The flowers are bisexual, regular with pale yellow coloured petals and superior ovary. Phytochemical analysis of the tender fruits and mature leaves of Gongronema latifolium revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponinsflavonoidsphenols, phytic acid and hydrocyanic acid.

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Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals Ann Jose ankara escort. Gongronema latifolium ; biology; utilization; phytochemical analysis ; plant morphology. The tropical rainforest is the most biologically diverse ecosystem on the earth and it is the predominant natural forest in Nigeria. It is favorable for the production of a wide range of useful plants and spices including Gongronema latifolium [ 12 ].

Plants and plant-products are good sources of medications and provide raw materials for modern pharmaceuticals used for various ailments [ 3 ].

The medicinal value of plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiologic action on the human body. The gontronema active of these bioactive compounds phytochemicals of plants are alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds [ 4 ].

Health Benefits Of Gongronema latifolium (Utazi)

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants and which may affect health and are not laticolium established as essential nutrients [ 5 ]. Phytochemicals give plants their color, flavour, smell and texture. As time goes by, our typical diets seem to increasingly contain more fatty processed foods and less natural plant based foods. The result of this disturbing trend can be seen in the alarming statistics on cancer, heart diseases, stroke and many other degenerative diseases.

Aside from dietary problems, there is a problem of inadequate intake of plant based foods and all the benefits they bring with them. On the other hand, with increase in population and socio-economic changes leading to high altifolium of urbanization, need for more houses as well as increased commercialization of agricultural productions, natural forests that are rich sources of useful plants are being destroyed gogronema a large scale [ 9 ].

Gongronema latifolium is of huge importance in food and medicine, but there is a gross lack latifloium knowledge in the biology of this plant species and its utilization viz a viz its phytochemical composition.

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This consideration has made it important to investigate and understand the biology, phytochemical composition and utilization of the species. This information will be invaluable for any subsequent improvement and conservation of the plant. The Gongronema latifolium samples used in this gongronemq were collected from four States in the South- Eastern zone of Nigeria and planted in the experimental fields of the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar.

Stem cuttings of the species were raised in the nursery for one month before transplanting in the field. Cultural practices such as weeding and staking were carried out. The plants were monitored for three years Feb, —Feb, to determine the time of maturity flowering and fruiting and the consistency in the biological processes such as germination of its seeds.

Taxonomic identification and classification of different parts of the plant leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds were carried out in the Department of Botany, University of Calabar and through literature review. Studies on the utilization of Gongronema latifolium were based on oral interviews with various respondents at each State where collections were made. A total of 80 respondents 20 from each Statewere interviewed. This number included farmers, traditional doctors, housewives, traders and other users of G.

Phytochemical screening of the fruits and leaves of G. The mature leaves and tender green fruits samples were oven dried at for three days, ground to fine powder and stored in dry containers for further analysis. Quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out to determine alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, phytic acid, oxalate and hydrocyanic acid.

Using standard methods described by Sofowora [ 10 ], Edeoga et al. With three replications and the results were recorded in percentages. Concentrated ammonium hydroxide was added drop-wise to the extract until the precipitate formation was completed. It was then allowed to settle and washed and filtered with dilute ammonium hydroxide solution. The residue was dried in an oven and taken as crude alkaloid.

It was weighed and recorded. Tannin was extracted from 0. Colour was developed using Vanillin hydrochloric acid reagent and the concentration was quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer at nm.

Journal of Chemistry

The solution was washed with diethyl ether until colorless. The pH was adjusted to 5. Finally, it was extracted with n-butanol and washed with sodium chloride and evaporated to dryness to give saponins which were weighed and recorded. The solution was filtered through Whatman filter paper. The filtrate was transferred into a beaker and gongrobema to dryness over a hot plate to give flavonoids which was weighed and recorded.

The slurry was agitated for 15 minutes. The concentration of the solution was determined using uv-vis spectrophotometer at nm. The layifolium ferric phytate was converted to sodium phytate by adding 3 ml of sodium hydroxide. The precipitate was digested with acid mixture of equal portions of concentrated gonngronema VI acid and perchloric acid in a digestion set.

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Gongronema latifolium

The liberated phosphorus was quantified calorimetrically at nm after color development with molybdate reagent. The oxalate in the extract was precipitated with calcium chloride as salts. Data collected were analyzed using the t-test and descriptively using the means and standard error. Gongronema latifolium is a flowering plant of the order Gentiales and the family Apocynaceae, Subfamily Asclepiadaceae, and genus Calotropis.

It is a tropical climbing plant lianas woody distributed mainly in the tropical and sub tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Oceania [ 14 – 16 ]. It is propagated by stem cuttings as well as by seeds. The species takes up to one year to gongronemq mature and flower.

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The study showed that the leaves of Gongronema latifolium are simple, opposite, decussate and whorled, peltate with entire margin and long petiole about 5. The leaves area measured approximately The inter node length varied according to the habitat, and reached up to 30 cm in length in shady environments such as forest floors or less than 5 cm in exposed regions.

The roots are adventitious arising wherever the soft woody stem makes contact with soil. Inflorescences are extra-axillary cymes.

The calyx has five basal glands; the corolla is urceolate with five lobes. There are five lobes ofscalelike corona inserted at the base of latifloium. The stamens are five while the filaments are connected into a tube.

Anthers are erect with membranous apical appendages. There are two pollinia per pollinarium, and the styles are short. The stigma heads are vertically conical in shape. The flowers are lagifolium yellow in colour Plate C. Gongronfma fruit of Gongronema latifolium is a dehiscent seed pod called a follicle which is oblong- lanceolate. The colour of the fruits varied from green in small fruits to dark brown to black at maturity. During maturity stage, the fruit splits open length wise, along the seam releasing flat seeds, the seeds are attached to a white gongrone,a tuft pappus which aids dispersal.

The seeds are strongly compressed, coma shaped and measure about 0. Flowering was initiated in late January and went on through March. The flowers are insect pollinated. Fruit development in the species is a slow process lasting from April through November, when the fruits begin to mature and change color from green to black and eventually dehisce in the later part of dry season December to February.

New flowers often meet old fruits on the plant. Mature seeds of G. Gongronema latifolium is an important plant that is utilized for its medicinal and culinary properties. A few of the leaves are chopped and gongrobema to foods such as porridges, stews and pepper soups.

Gongronema latifolium Benth.

Two very latifklium Ibo delicacies known as Nkwobi Cow leg pepper soup and Isi ewu Goat head pepper soup are prepared with G. According to findings from respondents, the leaves impart a sharp bitter taste and sweet aroma to food and it increases appetite and this has also been reported by Adelaja and Fasidi, FAO [ 917 ].

The crude extract from the leaves and vines are mixed with lime juice and drunk to expel worms and dispel stomach upsets and crams. The crude extract is mixed with extracts of bitter leaf Vernonia amygdalina and scent leaf Ocimum gratissimum and taken to treat malaria and typhoid fever [ 18 ].

The extract is taken alone to maintain healthy blood glucose level and to check excesses of diabetes and hypertension. The extract is also used as enema, for treatment of malaria gonbronema stomach disorders. One or two young follicles are eaten daily with or without the seeds to treat stomach ache, check diabetes, treat malaria and tone the blood.

Phytochemical differences in fruits and leaves of Gongronema latifolium. Oxalate was not detected in either the leaf or fruit samples.