Digestibility coefficients of sun dried and fermented aquatic macrophytes for Cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, ). Coeficientes de. Genero: Piaractus. Especies: Piaractus Brachypomus “Cachama blanca”. “La cachama alcanza su madurez sexual a los 3 años de edad”. The effects of straws volume, cryoprotectants and thawing temperatures were evaluated on the sperm quality of cachama blanca Piaractus.

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Digestibility coefficients of sun dried and fermented aquatic macrophytes for Cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus Cuvier, Villavicencio, Colombia 4 Prof.

The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter ADC drymattercrude protein ADC protein and the gross energy ADC energy of the aquatic macrophytes Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides treated by sun drying and lactic acid fermentation were determined for juveniles Each test ingredient was included at g kg-1 in a semipurified reference diet containing chromium oxide as an indicator.

Faeces were collected by a specific sedimentation system. The 3 x 2 factorial analysis of variances indicated that the digestibility coefficients of the tested macrophytes were significantly different between plant material and treatments, but not between their combinations. ADC protein ranged from Among the plants, fermented Spirodela polyrhiza showed the highest nutrient and energy digestibility. Lactic acid fermentation is a highly recommendable treatment when aquatic macrophytes should be include into diets for Cachama blanca.

Cachama, protein digestiblity, energy digestibility, fermentation. Entre as plantas estudadas, a Spirodela polyrhiza fermentada apresentou a maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes e energia. In feed formulation, the most important characteristics of the components are their nutrient quantity and quality as well as their digestibility, mainly digestible protein and energy Austreng ; Fagbenro The apparent digestibility coefficients ADCs provide valuable information for the formulation of nutritional and economically feasible diets.

Particularly, diet and dietary compound digestibility are essential for exact determination of nutrient demands in fish metabolism. In addition, ensuring a high diet digestibility preserves the aquatic environment by avoiding the accumulation of indigestible ingredients.

For the Amazonian fish Piaractus brachypomus as for the majority of characids, the scarce information on nutritional demand existent refers mainly to ingredients which are frequently used in common commercial aquafeeds, namely fish meal, soybean or soybean-derived products and wheat products Quintero et al.

Considering increased prices of aquafeeds, the identification of less expensive and locally available feed sources has become necessary to assure the proposed aquaculture development, particularly in rural areas.

Aquatic macrophytes are one of the most abundant plant materials in the Neotropical floodplain systems and a natural feed source for some native fish species. Although, they have been widely used as a nutrient source in diets for tropical freshwater fish, principally tilapia and carp Edwards ; Ray and Das ; Bairagi et al.

In spite of the great nutritional potential of aquatic macrophytes, their utilization in native forms as fish feed remains low due to their relative high fibre and ash content as well as the presence of trypsin inhibitors, phytates, tannins and oxalates, among other antinutritional substances, which reduce their digestibility.

To enhance the nutritional value of plant materials for fish, simple methods for processing suitable for marginal areas have been investigated.

Thus, the fermentation process of cwchama macrophytes seems to be adequate, since it considerably reduces fibre content and blanfa substances present in the plants Bairagi et al. The South American fish Cachama blanca or Pirapitinga common names in Colombia and Brazil, respectively Piaractus brachypomus Characidaeis an omnivorous fish with a predominantly herbivorousfeeding behaviour Silva Its natural diet consists principally of plant products and in a lower amount of fish and crustacean.

Moreover, it is the cachamw fish species in the Colombian national program of food safety and occupies the second place in the Colombian national aquaculture production Espinal et al. Considering that processed aquatic macrophytes may boanca a suitable source of plant protein for the small-scale characid production in Colombia, the present study was conducted to determine, dry matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibility of selected aquatic macrophytes Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides treated by sun drying and lactic acid fermentation methods for juveniles of Piaractus brachypomus.

The aquatic macrophytes used for experimental diets were harvested as wild or uncultivated plant material from water bodies in northern Colombia. Plants were collected continuously during a period of blanda weeks.


After taxonomical identification, the plant material was cleaned cacyama divided in two parts. The first part was sundried until its dry weight was constant. The second part was fermented. In order to obtain the required DM content for silages, which is approximately g kg-1 for grass and forages DLGthe freshly harvested aquatic plants were mixed with wilted aquatic plants of the same sample.

Afterwards, these mixtures were fermented. The lactic acid silage fermentation process was carried out using a commercial silage lactic acid bacteria LAB inoculant as described by Cruz et al.

Spirodela polyrhiza Giant DuckweedLemna minor Duckweed and Azolla filiculoides Fern Azolla treated by sun drying or lactic acid fermentation Table 1. Chromic oxide Cr 2 O 3 at an inclusion level of 5 g kg-1 was used as external inert marker. Diets were finely ground, mixed and pelleted to sizes of 4 mm. A total of juveniles of Piaractus brachypomus with a similar initial body weight of The experiment was conducted in a closed recirculation-system with constant aeration and a photoperiod of approximately 12 h of light.

The water quality was monitored daily in the morning with respect to cachamz, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Prior to the experiment, the fish were fed with the reference diet twice daily and cacnama a period of two weeks cacha,a order to accustom them to the experimental conditions.

Afterwards, seven experimental diets one reference diet and six test diets were randomly assigned to triplicate experimental groups. Fish were manually fed the experimental diets once daily to apparent satiety. Stocked fish of each experimental tank blancq transferred to the cylindrical-conical tanks after feeding.

Faeces collection was done according to a specific schedule. The samples were collected at 60 min intervals over a period of 12 h per day during two wks. The nutrient composition of the sundried and fermented material, as well as the diets and the faecal samples collected from each tank were determined in triplicates and performed following the AOAC procedures. The ADCs for the nutrients and energy of the reference and test diets were calculated using the formula described by Noseas follows: ADCs of the test ingredients were calculated based on the digestibility of the reference diet and test diets using the formula suggested by Bureau et al.

Digestible protein DP and digestible energy DE were calculated using the data corresponding to protein and energy digestibility, crude protein CP and gross energy GE content of test ingredients. In order to assess the separate and combined effect of the plant material three species and treatment sundried and fermentation on the dry matter, protein and energy digestibility in Cachama blanca a 3 x 2 factorial analysis of variances ANOVA was conducted.

The means and standard error of means SEM for dry matter, protein and energy digestibility as a function of the two factors are presented in Table 1. All statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 19 software package. The water quality parameters presented during the experimental period were within optimal requirements for Piaractus brachypomus, reported by Vasquez-Torres All diets were satisfactorily consumed, indicating that no palatability problem was encountered with any of the treatments during the experiment.

The proximate composition of the test ingredients, reference diet and test diets Table 1. Likewise, among test diets those containing fermented plants showed the lowest crude fibre and ash content, whereas protein and lipids contents were slightly higher compared to diets containing sundried macrophytes.

The dietary gross energy was not different in the test diets. The ADC drymatterADC protein and ADC energy of the tested ingredients were significantly different between plant material types and processing methods, but not between their combinations Table 1.

However, values tended to be higher for the fermented aquatic plants indicating the major effect of the processing method on the digestibility. Among test ingredients, the highest ADC drymatterADC protein and ADC energy were obtained for fermented macrophytes, whereas the significantly lowest value was displayed by the sundried macrophytes.

Fermented Spirodela polyrhiza showed the highest ADC drymatter High ash content negatively influence the digestibility of plant materials. The lower ADC drymatter of sundried aquatic macrophytes could be explained by their high mineral content ash content when compared to the fermented aquatic plants.

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Edwards reported that it reduces the nutritional value of aquatic macrophytes and it is considered as the main reason why animals refuse to eat them in large quantities.

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The lower ADC protein of sundried plants may be related to their high fibre content, which ranged closely to g kg-1, whereas in fermented plants the fibre content ranged between Similar results were reported by Fernandes et al. In general, the fibre content as well as the ash content was bly diminished in diets containing fermented plants.

The ADC protein of fermented aquatic macrophytes between The ADC protein of toasted whole soybean Lower ADC protein were found in wheat bran In another study with Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicusa closely-related species to Piaractus brachypomusAbimorad et al.

As a consequence of their higher ADC proteinfermented macrophytes showed a significantly higher digestible protein content from g kg-1 to g kg-1 than sundried macrophytes from These results are also consistent to those previously reported for other warm water fish by several authors.

Cachama blanca

In earlier studies with Indian major carp, Ray and Das suggested that fermented macrophytes had a higher protein digestibility in relation to sundried macrophytes. More recently, Bairagi et al. Differences of ADC cahama among plants could blnaca attributed to the variances owing to the species. The population density, the ecological conditions, and the growth status of the plants at harvesting are all factors that affect their chemical composition.

In fact, it must also be considered that plants were taken from natural water bodies instead of cultures. Differences of ADC energy and therefore digestible energy acchama treatments were found.

All the energy values of the tested ingredients were relatively low and aquatic macrophytes can be described as xachama feed source poor in lipids and soluble carbohydrates, which do not possess desirable features to be used as an energy source.

Interestingly, the ADC energy obtained for both fermented between Likewise, in diets for P. The low ADC energy can be also attributed to the relatively high content of indigestible fibre in the tested aquatic macrophytes, cachamma fibre might reduce the nutrient and energy availability of ingredients Robinson and Li The most obvious difference between diets containing fish meal and alternative plant ingredients is the lower available digestible energy content.

Digestibility of non-conventional plant material is highly variable depending not only on the processing methods and the dietary inclusion cadhama but on the tested fish species. Studies involving Piaractus regularly relate the high digestibility of several ingredients to morphological and histological advantages of the digestive system of this genus Abimorad et al.

Piaractus brachypomus is a typical omnivorous fish, although some aspects of its digestive tract morphology present similarities with carnivorous species as the trout, the Bacalao and the striped Bass. The presence of the stomach is an important feature from a perspective of increased ability of fish to digest complex proteins and therefore to adapt to variable diets Grabner and Hofersince the gastric glands present in the stomach secret blancca and hydrochloric acid with the purpose to contribute to the enzymatic degradation of foods in the stomach Kaye et al.

Thus, fish species of the genus Piaractus are desired for using unconventional plant ingredients as nutrient sources in the rural aquaculture. In conclusion, this study showed that ADC drymatterADC protein and ADC energy of fermented aquatic macrophytes were significantly higher than those of sundried aquatic macrophytes. Thus, fermented aquatic macrophytes, cafhama Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor cachaa, and Azolla filiculoides can be recommended as dietary ingredients into diets for the Cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus.

Apparent digestibility of protein, energy, and amino acids in some cachamq feed ingredients for pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractusmesopotamicus Holmberg, Official Methods of Analysis.

Digestibility determination in fish using chromic oxide marking and analysis of contents from different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Duckweed Lemna polyrhiza leaf meal as a source of feedstuff in formulated diets for rohu Labeorohita Ham. Apparent digestibility of rendered animal protein ingredients for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Bureau D, Hua K.